Both the level and nature of government resource allocation are central to economic and human development. If governments fail to efficiently provide infrastructure, encourage investment in R&D, enforce contracts, or build health and education systems, countries will stagnate at best and, at worst, risk civil conflict and other adverse outcomes. PEDL scholars study a number of determinants of public goods provision, including government types, political institutions, ethnicity, populism, and foreign aid. PEDL scholars also analyze a variety of public goods themselves, such as health and education, economic growth, government spending and local public goods such as garbage collection and neighborhood security arrangements. The diversity of methodological approaches to these topics are equally as rich, from detailed qualitative accounts to innovative experimental techniques.